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Wounded Willy and Damaged Debbie

RSD

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Anthropomorphic Phantoms for Military Training in Radiography

  • 60 traumas and pathologies divided between Willy and Debbie
  • Can be positioned realistically
  • Human technical factors
  • Unlimited repetition of views without human exposure
  • Radiographs that permit evaluation of trainee performance
  • Teaching/training for civilian hospital ER's

Willy and Debbie Capabilities and Differences

Wounded Willy and Damaged Debbie demonstrate and evaluate positioning and imaging techniques, including kVp, mAs, contrast, optical density, OFD and TFD. Their radiographs are optically equivalent to humans in density and contrast.

The most obvious difference between Willy and Debbie is the complement of traumas and pathologies assigned to each. Also Debbie has female breasts, while willy has natural male chest contours. Debbie is fitted with a wig, while Willy is bald. They are dressed in camos for military training and in jumpsuits for civilian training.

Traumas and Pathologies

There is no single, unique description of any of their traumas and pathologies. Rather, there are limitless variations among a broad range of casualties. The most meaningful judgment of the realism of trauma and pathologies are those based on long radiographic experience across the spectrum of casualties.

Dimensions

The size and weight of PIXY are also used for WILLY and DEBBIE. They are small adults. Since technologists must learn to work with patients of all sizes and weights, a smaller phantom is as valid for training as a larger phantom, and position is facilitated. Each is 5 ft. 1 in. tall (156 cm) and weights 105 lbs (48 kg).

Anatomy

WILLY and DEBBIE are articulated at the neck, shoulders, elbows, hips and knees. Fractures of the left shoulder and left hip are located in DEBBIE. To minimize handling problems, all other traumas of the arms and legs are located in WILLY and on the right side of DEBBIE. The articulations provide a broad range of positioning of capabilities, even the “frog position”.

Lungs

Lungs are molded of durable materials with radiodensities matched to humans in a median respiratory state. Animal lungs matching the human in size and blood vessels are available, but they are oriented towards research rather than training.

Soft Tissues

WILLY and DEBBIE have solid soft tissues that are hard and rigid. They cannot be palpated to locate traumas. However, radiological technologists are generally informed by the physician as to the views to be taken. The manual provides this information to instructors.

Skeletons

Manufactured skeletons are used rather than natural human skeletons. The latter are generally unavailable and usually consist of an assortment of bones ranging from children to adults of ages for which osteoporosis becomes a factor. They are not to be confused with plastic skeletons for teaching anatomy. These skeletons are made to fit the soft-tissue molds precisely. They have spongiosa moldings within marrow cavities and outer cortical bone. Both constituents meet the internationally-accepted standards for radiodensity and specific gravity.

Notes: An axial duct is seen above. It is filled by a polycarbonate rod to assemble the head and neck to T1. When assembled, the duct artifact is barely visible. Anatomic and mechanical necks are interchangeable between WILLY and DEBBIE. Heads are interchangeable between WILLY and DEBBIE.

Among the trade-offs required in these phantoms is that between anatomic fidelity and the ability to move the head into a broad range of views is required in radiography. No mechanism can be designed for intervertebral motion without artifacts obliterating the radiographs.

This problem has been solved by the use of two necks. One is a multi-articulated polycarbonate assembly which provides for nearly all commonly used views. There is no attempt at radiographic realism in this neck. An alternate, fully-realistic neck is interchangeable with the mechanical neck. The cervical spine of this neck contains traumas.

Legend: Traumas and pathologies are listed below. External markings are: N (none), O (open wound), S (swelling), H (bullet or foreign body hole), B (bruise), Side (R.L.), E (WILLY or DEBBIE).

Number Willy/Debbie Description Side External Marking
1 Willy Metallic fragment in orbit R N
2 Willy Multiple fragments lower face N/A N
3 Willy Step deformity of intraorbital rim L B
4 Willy Separated fracture of frontal zygomatic suture L S
5 Willy Metallic foreign body over skull N/A N
6 Willy Mandible fracture with missing bone N/A O
7 Debbie Depressed comminuted fracture of zygomatic arch L S
8 Debbie Mandibular fractures R S,B
9 Debbie Cloudy maxillary sinus L N
10 Debbie Fracture of nasal bones with mild displacement N/A H
11, 12 Willy Displacement fracture of mandibular condyle L,R S
13 E C4, C5 Compression fracture N/A N
14 E C7 Fractured by bullet N/A H
15 E C-spine bullet anterior to trachea shadow N/A H
16 Willy Fracture of lateral ribs 6 & 7 R N
17 Willy Mediolateral fracture of ribs 8 & 9 L N
18 Willy Multiple rib fractures, four metallic fragments visible R N
19 Willy 12th rib frature R N
20 Willy Bullet in hemothorax overlaying 8th rib L H
21 Willy Bullet overlying heart shadow N/A H
22 Willy 2 cm metallic fragment in mid chest R N
23 Willy Bullet visible below costal margin under 11th rib L H
24 Willy 2 bullets in LUQ L H
25, 26 Willy Shattered distal scapulae L,R H
27 Debbie Widened mediastinum and pleural effusion N/A N
28 Debbie Chest tube, lung inflated L Tube
29 Debbie Infiltrate N/A N
30 Debbie Bullet in mid-abdomen N/A H
31 Willy Unstable fracture of L1 N/A N
32 Willy Compression fracture of L5 N/A N
33 Debbie Metallic foreign body lateral to PSOAS R N
34 Debbie Compression fracture of L4 N/A H
35 Debbie Metallic fragments – 2 mid-abdomen, 1 each in RLQ and LLQ N/A H
36 Debbie Bullet in mid-abdomen N/A H
37 Debbie Metallic fragments – 2 mid-abdomen, 1 each: RLQ and LLQ N/A N
38 Willy ILIAC crest comminuted fracture with metallic fragments R B
39 Debbie Displaced fracture of pubic ramus L N
40 Debbie Sacroiliac disruption, acetabular fracture L N
41 Debbie Foreign body lateral to PSOAS R N
42 Willy Non-displaced pubic ramus fracture N/A N
43 Willy Superior and inferior pubic ramus fracture R N
44 Willy Pelvis fracture with symphysis diastasis and sacroiliac joint disruption N/A N
45 Willy Bullet in sacrum N/A N
46 Willy Shattered acetabulum L Latex "shorts"
47 Willy Shattered femoral head L Latex "shorts"
48 Willy Comminuted midshaft fracture L S
49 Willy Left femur comminuted fracture 12 cm above knee L S
50 Debbie Proximal tibia fracture L S
51 Willy Comminuted fracture of tibia and fibula R S
52 Willy Displaced ankle fracture R S
53 Debbie Minimally displaced distal tibia fracture R S
54 Debbie Displaced fracture of calcaneus bone R N
55 Willy Displaced fracture of radius and ulna L
56 Debbie Volar angulated distal radius and ulna fracture R
57 Willy Angulated comminuted fracture of midshaft radius and ulna R
58 Debbie Minimally displaced distal radius fracture not involving wrist, offset bone ends
59 Debbie 3rd and 4th metacarpals shattered L Thickened, back of hand

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Wounded Willy, Damaged Debbie, Wounded Willy and Damaged Debbie

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Wounded Willy and Damaged Debbie
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